Readelf assembly

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The primary advantage of flash memory is that is non-volatile. Modern embedded systems use flash memory extensively to store not only boot code and settings, but large blocks of data such as audio or video streams. Many embedded systems use flash memory as a low power, high reliability substitute for a hard drive. Inline assembly is used for speed, and you ought to believe me that it is frequently used in system programming. We can mix the assembly statements within C/C++ programs using keyword asm The HAL infrastructure provides a robust interrupt handling service routine and an API for exception handling. The Nios® II processor can handle exceptions caused by hardware interrupts, unimplemented instructions, and software traps.The HAL provides two simple file systems and an API for dealing with file data. The HAL uses the GNU newlib library's file access routines, found in file.h, to provide access to files. In addition, the HAL provides the following file systems: readelf 命令详解. [描述]. readelf用来显示一个或者多个elf格式的目标文件的信息,可以通过它的选项来控制显示哪些信息

readelf - Unix, Linux Command - Tutorialspoin

Program Structure in GNU/Linux (ELF Format)

The Nios® II ethernet acceleration design example is an integral part of this section. The design example shows how the acceleration techniques can be applied in a real working Nios® II system. The readme.doc file, located in the design example folder, provides additional hands-on instructions that demonstrate how to implement the acceleration techniques in a Nios® II system. The readme.doc file also provides performance benchmark results.For additional information about the Platform Designer timer peripheral, refer to the Interval Timer Core chapter in the Embedded Peripherals IP User Guide and to the Developing Nios® II Software chapter of this handbook.

Embedded Linux on ARM

nios2-terminal //Press ENTER If the boot copier runs successfully, you see output from nios2-terminal, as shown in the "Small Boot Copier Output" figure.Figure 213. Small Boot Copier Output Note: If nios2-terminal cannot connect to the JTAG UART with the default settings, run it with the --help option for a listing of the command line switches that might be needed. 5.3.8. Debugging Boot Copiers Some special considerations should be made when attaching the Nios® II SBT for Eclipse™ debugger to a processor running boot copier code. The following section discusses the requirements for debugging boot copiers.If the mpuacc register is configured with the MASK field, the MASK field represents the size of your region. The value of MASK is defined in the equation below.In versions 6.0 and later of the Nios® II processor, an optional cpu_resetrequest signal is available to control the reset state of the processor. This signal differs from the normal Platform Designer system-wide reset signal reset_n—the cpu_resetrequest signal resets the Nios® II processor only. The rest of the Platform Designer system remains operational. This signal holds the Nios® II processor in reset while code is moved into the Nios® II program memory.

For example, consider a 32-bit ARM BE-8 processor core that reads from a 16-bit little endian timer peripheral by performing a 16-bit read access. The ARM processor treats byte offset 0 as the most significant byte of any word. The timer treats byte offset 0 as the least significant byte of the 16-bit value. When the processor reads a value from the timer, the bytes of the value, as seen by software, are swapped. The figure below shows the swapping. A timer counter value of 0x0800 (2,048 clock ticks) is interpreted by the processor as 0x0008 (8 clock ticks) because the arithmetic byte ordering of the processor does not match the arithmetic byte ordering of the timer component.#define BOOT_METHOD <boot method> The options available for <boot method> are:

readelf (GNU Binary Utilities

Use one or more of these tools to determine the tasks in which your application is spending most of its processing time.The Intel FPGA Serial Flash Controller allows Nios® II processor systems to access EPCS/ EPCQ flash memories, which support standard, quad and single- or dual-I/O mode. The Nios® II processor SBT supports the Nios® II booting from the Intel FPGA Serial Flash Controller. In addition, a Nios® II hardware abstraction layer (HAL) driver is available for the Intel FPGA Serial Flash Controller that allows an application to read, write, or erase flash.Additionally, the following MicroC/OS-II thread priorities were selected for the two core NicheStack tasks:> readelf -x .got libbar2.so Hex dump of section '.got': 0x00200fb0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 ................ 0x00200fc0 00000000 00000000 04000000 00000000 ................ 0x00200fd0 00000000 00000000 08000000 00000000 ................ 0x00200fe0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 ................ 0x00200ff0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 ................ Notice the fourth and fifth columns of the first three rows: 00000000 00000000, 04000000 00000000, 08000000 00000000. They are three 64-bit integers 0, 4 and 8 in little endian, corresponding three offsets for the three TLS variables (The size of type int is 4 bytes in x86-64 Linux).The GNU profiler tracks each individual function with a call to mcount(). Therefore, if the application code contains many small functions, the impact of the GNU profiler on processor time is larger. However, the resolution of the profiled data is higher. To calculate the additional processor time consumed by profiling with mcount(), multiply the amount of time that the processor requires to execute mcount() by the number of run-time function calls in your application run.

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Both of these software examples use the MPU utility functions and macros in mpu_utils.c and mpu_utils.h. In both examples, initialization and reinitialization are handled by two functions: one for data regions, and one for instruction regions. In most real-world systems, a single function is sufficient to handle initialization and reinitialization for both types of regions.The same issue occurs when you apply a bus-level renaming wrapper to an ARM BE-32 or PowerPC core. Both processor cores treat byte offset 0 as the most significant byte of any value. As a result, you must handle any mismatch between arithmetic byte ordering of data used by the processor and peripherals in your system.If your board fabrication facility does not perform bare board testing, you must perform these tests. To detect data trace failures on your memory interface you should use a pattern typically referred to as “walking ones.” The walking ones pattern shifts a logical 1 through all of the data traces between the FPGA and the memory device. The pattern can be increasing or decreasing; the important factor is that only one data signal is 1 at any given time. The increasing version of this pattern is as follows: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and so on.The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are equivalent. At least one option besides ‘-v’ or ‘-H’ must be given. Click Generate > HDL Example to view the HDL for an example instantiation of the system. The HDL example lists the signals from the exported interfaces in the system. The signal names are the exported interface name followed by an underscore, and then the signal name specified in the component or IP core. Most of the signals connect to the external SDRAM device.

The SPI Slave to Avalon® Master Bridge component provides a simple connection between processors and Platform Designer systems through a four-wire industry standard serial interface. Host systems can initiate Avalon® -MM transactions by sending encoded streams of bytes through the core's serial interface. The core supports read and write transactions to the Platform Designer system for memory access and peripheral expansion.From the command line, set makefile variables with the --set <var> <value> command-line option during configuration of the application project. The variables you can set include the pre- and post-processing settings BUILD_PRE_PROCESS and BUILD_POST_PROCESS to specify commands to be executed before and after building the application. Examine a generated application makefile to ensure you understand the current and default settings.  1 #include <stdio.h>         /* We need a prototype so the compiler knows what types function() takes */     int function(char *input);   5     /* Since this is static, we can define it in both hello.c and function.c */     static int i = 100;         /* This is a global variable */  10 int global = 10;         int main(void)     {     /* function() should return the value of global */  15 int ret = function("Hello, World!");     exit(ret);     }     Example 7.5. Function Example  1 #include <stdio.h>         static int i = 100;       5 /* Declard as extern since defined in hello.c */     extern int global;         int function(char *input)     {  10 printf("%s\n", input);     return global;     }     CompilingAll compilers have an option to only execute the first step of compilation. Usually this is something like -S and the output will generally be put into a file with the same name as the input file but with a .s extension.The .qsf file contains all of the device, pin, timing, and compilation settings for the Intel® Quartus® Prime project.

The address Offset fields are populated automatically and are indexed from the base address specified for the memory module on the System Contents tab.Because the Signal Tap II embedded logic analyzer uses the FPGA’s JTAG connection, continuous data triggering may result in lost samples. For example, if you capture data continuously at 100 MHz, you should not expect all of your samples to be displayed in the logic analyzer GUI. The logic analyzer buffers the data at 100 MHz; however, if the JTAG interface becomes saturated, samples are lost.The crt0.S source file is located in the <tools installation> /ip/altera/nios2_ip/altera_nios2/HAL/src directory.

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This command starts a GDB session in which a terminal displays source code next to the typical GDB console. A performance counter is a block of counters in the hardware that measures the execution time of the code sections that you choose. A performance counter component can track up to seven code sections. By default, the component tracks three code sections. A pair of counters tracks each code section:The operating system disables the MPU, reconfigures it, and then re-enables it whenever the processor needs to run in a different MPU configuration. For example, the OS might need to change MPU configurations upon the following types of events:The interrupt service routines must be located in the new .isrs section. Otherwise, the linker uses the default setting, defeating the purpose of declaring a special memory section for the interrupt service routine.You can build the design example with any Intel development board or your own custom board that meets the following hardware requirements:

You must edit the BSP editor settings according to the selected Nios® II processor boot options.The major advantage to measuring performance with the GNU profiler is that the GNU profiler provides an overview of the entire system. Although the GNU profiler adds some overhead, the GNU profiler distributes this overhead throughout the system evenly. The functions the GNU profiler identifies as consuming the most processor time also consume the most processor time when you run the application at full speed without profiler implementation. Assembly languages have the same structure and set of commands as machine languages, but they enable a programmer to use names instead of numbers The boot copier in this example prints information to the JTAG UART peripheral during the boot process. Printing is useful for debugging the boot copier, as well as for monitoring the boot status of your system. By default, the example prints basic information such as a start up message, the addresses in flash memory at which it is searching for boot images, and an indication of the image it ultimately selects to boot. You can add your own print messages to the code easily.

The First Time Designer’s Guide is a basic overview of Intel embedded development process and tools for the first time user. The chapter provides information about the design flow and development tools, interactions, and describes the differences between the Nios® II processor flow and a typical discrete microcontroller design flow.By off loading the processing required for the inputs or outputs to an FPGA, the discrete processor has more computation bandwidth available for the algorithmic processing.Unlike the performance counter, which can track only seven sections of code simultaneously, the timer has no such limit. You can read the timer 1,000 times and store the timer in 1,000 different variables as a start time for a section. Then, you can compare the timer to 1,000 end timer readings. The only practical limiting factors are memory consumption, processor overhead, and complexity.The alarm API allows you to schedule events based on the system clock timer, in the same way an alarm clock operates. The API consists of the alt_alarm_start() function, which registers an alarm, and the alt_alarm_stop() function, which disables a registered alarm.Here it goes, this is how TLS and DTV are setup! But who decides the -4 or 0xfffffffffffffffc is the right offset to get to our TLS variable main_tls_var?

The Nios® II Software Build Tools for Eclipse create and manage the makefiles for Nios® II software projects. When you create a project, the Nios® II Software Build Tools create a makefile based on parameters and settings you select. When you modify parameters and settings, the Nios® II Software Build Tools update the makefile to match. BSP makefiles are based on the operating system, BSP settings, selected software packages, and selected drivers.JTAG signal integrity problems are extremely difficult to diagnose. To increase the probability of avoiding these problems, and to help you diagnose them should they arise, Intel recommends that you follow the guidelines outlined in AN428: MAX II CPLD Design Guidelines and in the Verification and Board Bring-Up chapter of this handbook when designing your board.When you write a program, you might write a function called hello. When you compile the program, the binary for that function is labelled with a symbol called hello. If I call a function (like printf) from a library, we need a way to look up the code for that function! The process of looking up functions from libraries is called linking. It can happen either just after we compile the program (“static linking”) or when we run the program (“dynamic linking”).The figure below is a block diagram of a simple Nios® II system that includes tightly coupled memories and other Platform Designer System Integration Tool components.The Nios® II processor reset vector points to the EPCQ flash to allow code execution after the system resets. If you are debugging the application using the source-level debugger, you must use a hardware breakpoint because the EPCQ cannot efficiently support random memory access.

You can build the Platform Designer system in this tutorial for any Intel development board or your own custom board, if it meets the following requirements: A noisy power supply or ground plane can create signal integrity issues. With the typical voltage swing of digital devices frequently below a single volt, the power supply noise margin of devices on the PCB can be as little as 0.2 volts. Power supply noise can cause digital logic to fail. For this reason it is important to be able to isolate the power supplies on your board. You can isolate your power supply by using fuses that are removed so that a stable external power supply can be substituted temporarily in your design.The host-based file system enables the Nios® II system to manipulate files on a workstation through a JTAG connection. The API is a transparent way to access data files. The system does not require a physical block device.

$ readelf -S main There are 30 section headers, starting at offset 0x11e8: Section Headers: [Nr] Name Type Address Offset. Size EntSize Flags Link Info Align [ 0] NULL 0000000000000000 00000000 These commands run the GNU C and C++ compiler, respectively, for the Nios® II processor. Online Assembler. Assembly Basics Cheatsheet. Online Assembler. Exploitation To ensure correct data communication, the Avalon® -MM interface specification requires that each master or slave port of all components in your system pass data in descending bit order with data bits 7 down to 0 representing byte offset 0. This bus byte ordering is a little endian ordering. Any IP core that you add to your system must comply with the Avalon® -MM interface specification. This ordering ensures that when any master accesses a particular byte of any slave port, the same physical byte lanes are accessed using a consistent bit ordering. For more information, refer to the Avalon® Interface Specifications.The Nios® II development environment provides several tools to analyze the performance of your project. The software-only GNU profiler approach adds minimal overhead. To analyze deterministic real-time performance issues, you can use a hardware timer or a performance counter. To choose the best tool for your task, consider the problem that you are solving.

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  1. SDRAM performance benefits from sequential accesses. When access is sequential, data is written or read from consecutive addresses and it may be possible to increase throughput by using bursting. In addition, the SDRAM controller can optimize the accesses to reduce row and bank switching. Each row or bank change incurs a delay, so that reducing switching increases throughput.
  2. Intel recommends that you start your design from a small pretested project and build it incrementally. Start with one of the many Platform Designer example designs available from the All Design Examples web page of the Intel website, or with an example design from the Nios® II Hardware Development Tutorial.
  3. You must specify the cable and device when you have more than one JTAG cable ( Intel® FPGA Download Cable ) connected to your computer or when you have more than one device (FPGA) in your JTAG chain. Use the --cable and --device options for this purpose.
  4. The byte positions of the PowerPC bus byte ordering are aligned with the byte positions of the Avalon® -MM interface specification; however, the bits within each byte are misaligned. PowerPC processor cores use an ascending bit ordering when the masters are connected to the interconnect. For example, a 32-bit PowerPC core labels the bus data bits 0 up to 31. A PowerPC core considers bits 0 up to 7 as byte offset 0. This layout differs from the Avalon® -MM interface specification, which defines byte offset 0 as data bits 7 down to 0. To connect a PowerPC processor to the interconnect, you must rename the bits in each byte lane as shown below.
  5. Furthermore, AM can also enable an increase in design freedom, which potentially results in weight saving as well as facilitating the man- ufacture of complex assemblies formerly made of many..

The boot time was reduced by ~78% and ~77% for 9 kB and 32 kB application sizes respectively when the Nios® II FA is enabled. Running the boot code from the on-chip flash (execute in-place) is faster than running from external memory and on-chip memory. This is because the code executes in-place directly from the on-chip flash and does not need to be copied into the external memory or on-chip memory for execution which saves a lot of time.Display the contents of any selected debug sections that are found in linked, separate debug info file(s). This can result in multiple versions of the same debug section being displayed if it exists in more than one file. Displays the contents of the ‘.debug_cu_index’ and/or ‘.debug_tu_index’ sections.

Although you develop your FPGA-based design in Platform Designer, you must perform the following tasks in other tools:$ objdump -d ./hello Disassembly of section .text: 0000000000400410 <_start>: 400410: 31 ed xor %ebp,%ebp 400412: 49 89 d1 mov %rdx,%r9 400415: 5e pop %rsi 400416: 48 89 e2 mov %rsp,%rdx 400419: 48 83 e4 f0 and $0xfffffffffffffff0,%rsp full output hereOne disadvantage to measuring performance with a performance counter is the size of the counter. The performance counter component consumes a large number of LEs on your device.To display information about all instances of a specific function name in your .elf file, perform the following steps:

Video: A practical example Example 7

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A Deep dive into (implicit) Thread Local Storage The Assembly

  1. The JTAG signal integrity on your system is very important. You must debug your hardware and software, and program your FPGA, through the JTAG interface. Poor signal integrity on the JTAG interface can prevent you from debugging over the JTAG connection, or cause inconsistent debugger behavior.
  2. The low latency access of on-chip memory also makes it suitable for tightly coupled memories. Tightly coupled memories are memories which are mapped in the normal address space, but have a dedicated interface to the microprocessor, and possess the high speed, low latency properties of cache memory.
  3. Because the revised design has two processors, you must create two software projects; however, each of these software projects handles fewer tasks and is simpler to create and maintain. You must also create a mechanism for inter-processor communication. The inter-processor communication in this system is relatively simple and is justified by the system performance increase.
  4. To avoid this problem, the advanced boot copier example implements its own printing routine, called my_jtag_write(). This routine includes a user-adjustable timeout feature that allows the JTAG UART to stall the program for a limited timeout period. After the timeout period expires, the program continues without printing any more output to the JTAG UART. Using this routine instead of printf() prevents the boot copier from stalling if no host is connected to the JTAG UART.
  5. Platform Designer also provides an Assign Interrupt Numbers command which connects IRQ signals to produce valid hardware results. However, assigning IRQs effectively requires an understanding of how software responds to them. Because Platform Designer does not know the software behavior, Platform Designer cannot make educated guesses about the best IRQ assignment.
  6. The Embedded Design Handbook complements the primary documentation for the Intel tools for embedded system development. It describes how to most effectively use the tools, and recommends design styles and practices for developing, debugging, and optimizing embedded systems using Intel-provided tools. The handbook introduces concepts to new users of Intel’s embedded solutions, and helps to increase the design efficiency of the experienced user.

readelf - Displays information from any ELF format object file. size - Lists the section sizes of an object or archive file The timestamp timer service provides applications with an accurate way to measure the duration of an event in the system. The timestamp timer service requires that a timer peripheral be present in the Platform Designer system. This timer peripheral must be dedicated to the HAL timestamp timer service.For more information, refer to the software example designs that are shipped with every release of the Nios® II EDS. For more information about these examples, refer to one of the following sections:nios2-elf-nm <project>.elf | sort -n > <project>.elf.nm The <project> .elf.nm file contains all of the symbols in your executable file, listed in ascending address order. In this example, the nios2-elf-nm command creates the symbol list. In this text list, each symbol’s address is the first field in a new line. The -n option for the sort command specifies that the symbols be sorted by address in numerical order instead of the default alphabetical order.The benchmark application can measure UDP transmission speeds, but does so without accounting for lost or missing Ethernet packets. Therefore, the UDP test only measures the speed at which the transmitter can send all of the data using the UDP protocol, without considering whether the data arrived at the receiver.

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  1. Assembly 97.2%. Makefile 2.8%. Downloading... Want to be notified of new releases in Sheriff0/readelf
  2. Among other non-volatile types of memory, flash memory is the most popular for the following four reasons:
  3. This section presents tips and tricks that can be helpful when implementing any type of memory in your Platform Designer system. These techniques can help improve system performance and efficiency.
  4. To enable this functionality, use the --default_stdio <device> option during Nios® II BSP configuration. The stdin character input file variable and the stdout and stderr character output file variables can also be individually configured with the HAL BSP settings hal.stdin, hal.stdout, and hal.stderr.
  5. Also included are two design examples, with notes about how they work. These examples walk you through making use of the Nios® II processor's MPU in an environment based on the Intel hardware abstraction layer (HAL), without an OS. One of the examples uses the MPU to detect the following three issues commonly seen when debugging embedded systems:
  6. al application to communicate with your target subsystem. However, the Nios® II Software Build Tools for Eclipse and the nios2-ter
  7. If you use a BSP that is not based on the HAL and need to initialize it after the crt0.S routine runs, define your own alt_main() function. For an example, see the main() and alt_main() functions in the hello_alt_main.c file at < Nios® II EDS install dir> \examples\software\hello_alt_main.

The Nios® II Software Build Tools flow is the recommended design flow for hardware designs that contain a Nios® II processor. This section describes how to configure BSP and application projects, and the process of developing a software project for a system that contains a Nios® II processor, including ensuring coherency between the software and hardware designs.The write access behavior of the BE-32 processor shown in the table above differs greatly from the Nios® II processor behavior shown in Table 3. The only consistent access is the full 32-bit write access. In all the other cases, each processor accesses different byte lanes of the interconnect.To display the original, demangled function name that corresponds to a particular symbol name, you can type the following command:Booting is now complete. The Nios® II processor is off and running, so the external processor can go about its other system tasks.The Nios® II application data is built into the FPGA configuration bitstream. Based on your FPGA configuration scheme, program your FPGA device with the programming file containing .sof file and your Nios® II application will get running once the FPGA configured successfully.

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The boot time counter is controlled through software and it will stop once the driver initialization completes.Along with the high capacity and low cost of SDRAM, come additional complexity and latency. The complexity of the SDRAM interface requires that you always use an SDRAM controller to manage SDRAM refresh cycles, address multiplexing, and interface timing. Such a controller consumes FPGA logic elements that would normally be available for other logic.set_setting hal.sys_clk_timer peripheral_subsystem_high_res_timer set_setting hal.timestamp_timer none Save timer_definition.tcl. Return to your shell and recreate the application by typing:./create-this-app The figure below shows the error. Setting hal.sys_clk_timer to any other timers except for peripheral_subsystem_sys_clk_timer results in the same error message.Figure 270. Error Message after Changing the hal.sys_clk_timer peripheral_subsystem_high_res_timer The hardware timer called peripheral_subsystem_high_res_timer calculates interrupt latency. timer_interrupt_latency_init(), defined in timer_interrupt_latency.c, installs an interrupt service routine to handle peripheral_subsystem_high_res_timer. Therefore, peripheral_subsystem_high_res_timer must not be tied to the software timestamp driver, hal.timestamp_timer; it is set to none. Because peripheral_subsystem_sys_clk_timer is used for hal.sys_clk_timer, it must not be used for hal.timestamp_timer.

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cd < Nios® II EDS install path> ./nios2_command_shell.sh Change to the directory in which your makefile is located. If you use the Nios® II SBT for development, the correct location is often the Debug or Release subdirectory of your software project directory. In the Command Shell, type one of the following commands: make The Nios® II software generation process includes the following stages and main hardware configuration tools: An assembly language is a low-level programming language for microprocessors and other programmable devices. It is not just a single language, but rather a group of languages A pipeline bridge can also improve system timing performance by optionally adding pipeline registers to the design. This section describes the default linking behavior of the BSP generation tools and how to control the linking explicitly.

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The boot time measurement was done using a boot time performance counter. The boot time counter starts when Nios® II comes out of reset and the system will start the boot sequence according to the selected boot options:For example, if your *.sof image starts at address 0x0 and is 512 KB in size, then the minimum reset vector offset location you can select is 0x0080000. If the *.sof image space and the reset vector offset location overlap, Intel® Quartus® Prime software displays an overlap error. case R_X86_64_TPOFF64: /* The offset is negative, forward from the thread pointer. */ if (sym != NULL) { CHECK_STATIC_TLS (map, sym_map); /* We know the offset of the object the symbol is contained in. It is a negative value which will be added to the thread pointer. */ value = (sym->st_value + reloc->r_addend - sym_map->l_tls_offset); *reloc_addr = value; } break; Let’s zoom in at where the offset’s value is calculated:The information in this section is applicable to the performance counter report that the command line or the Nios® II SBT for Eclipse generates.For information about the Signal Tap II embedded logic analyzer, refer to the Design Debugging Using the Signal Tap II Embedded Logic Analyzer chapter in volume 3 of the Intel® Quartus® Prime Handbook and the Verification and Board Bring-Up chapter of this handbook.

Unlike SRAM, flash memory cannot be updated with a simple write transaction. Every write to a flash device uses a write command consisting of a fixed sequence of consecutive read and write transactions. Before flash memory can be written, it must be erased. All flash devices are divided into some number of erase blocks, or sectors, which vary in size, depending on the flash vendor and device size. Entire sections of flash must be erased as a unit; individual words cannot be erased. These requirements sometimes make flash devices difficult to use.The structure presented in the figure shows a typical embedded networking system. In general, a user application performs a job that defines the goal of the embedded system, such as controlling the speed of a motor or providing the UI for an embedded kiosk. The networking stack provides the application with an application programming interface (API), usually the Sockets API, to send networking data to and from the embedded system.The HAL BSP library supports parallel common flash interface (CFI) memory devices and Intel erasable, programmable, configurable serial (EPCS) flash memory devices. A uniform API is available for both flash memory types, providing read, write, and erase capabilities.

The source code for both variants of the default boot copier is included with the Nios® II Embedded Design Suite (EDS) in the <install directory>/ <version>/nios2eds/components/altera_nios2/boot_loader_sources directory.Immediately after the Nios® II processor completes reset, the boot copier executes, reads the boot record as described in the “Boot Images” section, and copies the application code to RAM. After copying is complete, the boot copier reads the entry point of the application code from the boot record. The boot copier executes the jump to that address, and the application software begins executing.This document describes how to use tightly coupled memory in designs that include a Nios® II processor and discusses some possible applications. It also includes a tutorial that guides you through the process of building a Nios® II system with tightly coupled memory.A Platform Designer system is similar in many ways to a conventional embedded system; however, the two kinds of system are not identical. An in-depth understanding of the differences increases your efficiency when designing your Platform Designer system.

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  1. You now have an executable boot copier that is ready to run on the Nios® II processor. Next, you must create an application to boot using the new boot copier.
  2. You might have noticed that so far we’ve only shown executables using TLS variables that are defined within the executables themselves, how would using them in another scenario differ?
  3. Building embedded systems in FPGAs involves system requirements analysis, hardware design tasks, and software design tasks. This tutorial guides you through the basics of each topic, with special focus on the hardware design steps.
  4. Since the module ID for the executable itself is always 1, dtvt,1 (i.e. dtv[1]) always points to the TLS block of the executable itself (module id 1). Additionally, as it can be seen from the diagram, the linker will also always place the executable’s TLS block right next to the TCB, presumably to keep the executable’s TLS variables in a predictable location and relatively hot in the cache.
  5. This section describes how to create and run the performance counter software example with the Nios® II command line.

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SDRAM devices employ bursting to improve throughput. Bursts group a number of transactions to sequential addresses, allowing data to be transferred back-to-back without incurring the overhead of requests for individual transactions. If you are using the high performance DDR/DDR2 SDRAM controller, you may be able to take advantage of bursting in the system interconnect fabric as well. Bursting is only useful if both the master and slave involved in the transaction are burst-enabled. Refer to the documentation for the master in question to check whether bursting is supported.Optimizing techniques enable better performance and resource utilization in your design. This chapter provides various optimizing techniques from the hardware and software perspective. The PIO component included with Platform Designer includes an edge-capture feature to use in this situation. The edge-capture feature sets a bit in the edge-capture register of the PIO whenever an edge of the predefined type is seen on that bit of the PIO’s input port. The external processor can read the edge-capture register any time after it asserts cpu_resetrequest. If the cpu_resettaken signal was asserted any time since the cpu_resetrequest assertion, the relevant bit in the PIO’s edge-capture register is set.Two types of cache-bypass macros are available. The HAL access routines whose names end in _32DIRECT, _16 DIRECT, and _8 DIRECT interpret the offset as a byte address. The other routines treat this offset as a count to be multiplied by four bytes, the number of bytes in the 32-bit connection between the Nios® II processor and the system interconnect fabric. The _32DIRECT, _16DIRECT, and _8DIRECT routines are designed to access memory regions, and the other routines are designed to access peripheral registers.

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This section focuses on the first method, in which the external processor unpacks the Nios® II boot image, copies the application code to Nios® II program memory, and then directs the Nios® II processor to the application's entry point.An important difference between discrete microprocessors and FPGAs is that an FPGA contains no logic when it powers up. Before you run software on a Nios® II based system, you must configure the FPGA with a hardware design that contains a Nios® II processor. To configure an FPGA is to electronically program the FPGA with a specific logic design. The Nios® II processor is a true soft-core processor: it can be placed anywhere on the FPGA, depending on the other requirements of the design. Two different variants of the processor are available for Nios® II Gen2, each with flexible features.1 < Nios® II EDS install path>/nios2_command_shell.shr The command shell is a Bourne-again shell (bash) with a pre-configured environment.

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For boot performance analysis, the Nios® II processor application sizes varies between 10kB to 64kB.Further along in the dynamic linker setup process, _dl_allocate_tls_init will be called to finally initialise the static TLS and DTV for the main thread.For additional information about the Platform Designer performance counter peripheral, refer to the Performance Counter Core chapter in the Embedded Peripherals IP User Guide.Consider the following common issues and important points before you implement a timestamp timer:

Hello World: C, Assembly, Object File and Executabl

For example, for the peripheral UART1, assume the #define values in system.h appear as follows:In most networking applications, however, your system can be connected to another host through one (or more) Ethernet hubs or switches. These extra connections can increase the communication latency. The benchmark numbers present the idealized performance of an almost perfect Ethernet connection.While choosing methods to test your hardware design during the early verification stages, you should also consider how to adapt them for environmental testing. If you believe your product is susceptible to vibration problems, you should choose sturdy instrumentation methods when testing memory interfaces. Alternatively, if you believe your product may be susceptible to electrical noise, then you should choose a highly reliable interface for debug purposes.

If I run nm on my copy of libc, it tells me “no symbols”. But the internet tells me I can use objdump -tT instead! This works! objdump -tT /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.15.so gives me this output.Refer to the RapidIO trade association web site's product list at rapidio.org for a list of processors that support a RapidIO interface.The small boot copier performs only the minimum necessary system initialization. The following initialization tasks are performed by the boot copier:In terms of just throughput performance, the UDP protocol is much faster than TCP because it has very little overhead. The UDP protocol makes no attempt to validate that the data being sent arrived at its destination (or even that the destination is capable of receiving packets), so the network stack needs to perform much less work in order to send or receive data using this protocol.The tutorials use three tools to measure the performance of a Nios® II system, as described in the following sections:

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